Liquid Jet Eductors
Liquid Jet Eductors use the kinetic energy of a motive liquid to entrain another liquid, completely mix the two, and then discharge the mixture against a counter pressure and are used in large numbers throughout industry for pumping and mixing operations.
Applications are so numerous, it is impossible to note all of them. General uses include lifting, pumping, mixing,
and agitating of liquids as well as handling granular solids and slurries. Some of the typical applications can be seen
- Draining flooded cellars, Emptying tanks and sumps or bunds, Pumping and mixing operations in oil treating systems
- De-watering sand and coal barges, Introducing anti-knock fluids and colouring matter into gasoline
- Continuous blending, Acidifying, Causticizing of oils, Mixing drilling mud, Producing emulsions
- Pumping food products, Pumping sand and filter clay or activated carbon
- Tank mixing, and various Proportioning operations
Liquid jet eductors consist of three basic components, namely a converging nozzle, a diffuser (or venturi), and a body to hold these parts in their relative positions and to provide a suction (or mixing) chamber. In addition, they can be equipped with accessories such as regulating spindles, snap valves and floats to control operation. When designing eductors experience is all-important to correctly design the nozzle, diffuser, and body and their relative positions as they are all highly critical and vary according to the physical properties of the liquids being handled.
As an example of eductor performance in a typical use, a 1.5 Inch Jet Eductor discharging against a 1 BarG back pressure will empty a 2 Cubic Meter water tank in less than 1 hour using water at only 4 BarG as the sole source of motive power.
Liquid jet eductors are manufactured in a variety of types and sizes as well as materials, our standard Type 264 and 266 ranges from 0.5 Inch to 6 Inch in size where as the Type 242 unit can range from 0.5 Inch up to and beyond 24 Inch. Variables such as pressure, temperature, density, required entrainment rates, and operating conditions must all be considered before determining the correct type and size of eductor to best suit to your requirements.
Sand and Mud Eductors
The Sand and Mud Eductors are recommended for use in pumping out wells, bore holes, pits, tanks, sumps and similar containers where there is an accumulation of sand, mud, slime or other material of a nature not easily handled by the standard eductors.
The Sand and Mud Eductor differ from standard eductors as they have an open suction port which is designed to be submerged in the material being handled, this allows the eductor to entrain relatively large solids and particles that would otherwise block a conventional eductor. Another feature of this unit are the agitating jets installed at the base of the eductor, these nozzles help to stir the material surrounding the eductor and make it fluid. This effectively means the eductor can be left buried in mud or slurry, and when operated it will begin to excavate the surrounding solids and begin pumping.
Sizes are available in 1 Inch through to 6 Inch, with sizes up to 4 Inch supplied with screwed connections as standard, for sizes above 4 Inch connections are flanged are usually supplied. Typical materials of construction are Cast Iron, Carbon Steel, Stainless Steel and Bronze, however other materials are available on request.
Typical Eductor Applications
A few of the primary applications where eductors are used can be seen below, this list is by no means exhaustive as their uses are numerous.
Pumping & Lifting
Water jet eductors are often used to empty tanks or to pump out sumps, bunds and cellars. The motive line should be fitted with a regulating valve and a pressure gauge while the suction line should be fitted with an strainer or mesh to prevent large particles entering the unit and causing blockages. Care should also be taken to ensure the discharge lines are always sealed to prevent air leaking back towards the eductor. To accomplish this either fit a U-bend to the discharge line, or always keep the open end of the discharge pipe submerged as this will allow stable and rapid entrainment of the suction liquid.
Where possible it is recommended that the eductor be installed a short distance above the liquid to be entrained and that short suction lines be used, however eductors will operate equally well with long suction lines. Care should be taken with suction lifts greater than 4.5 meters as operating capacities are considerably reduced.
Pumping Additives in to Liquids
The eductor is being used to introduce an additive into boiler feed water. A percentage of the water flowing from the pump is bypassed into the eductor where it acts as the motive force to draw in and entrain the additive. This is the preferred method of introducing additives as it does not reduce pressure in the main line downstream of the pump, and also allows the eductor to be kept to a much more economical size.
Steam Jet Syphons
Steam Jet Syphons operate on the steam jet principle utilising the energy of steam under pressure to pump, mix liquids and handle solids. In operation syphons use the kinetic energy of motive steam to entrain another liquid or slurry, completely mix the two, and then discharge the mixture against a head or counter pressure.
Syphons can be used for the handling of corrosive or abrasive liquids and solids because of their design simplicity and the absence of moving parts. They are also especially well suited for processes where heating is required in addition to pumping since the pumping is accomplished for the cost of the heating.
Steam Jet Syphons are used in large numbers throughout industry for pumping, mixing and heating operations, some of their
uses can be seen below:
- Intermittent pumping of liquids from tanks, pits, sumps and bunds
- Pumping filtrate from vacuum vessels and condensate from surface condensers
- Supplying heated water to the jackets of stills and graining bowls
- Removing liquid from pickling baths, Extracting chemicals in reaction chambers
- Moving powdered material or material in granular form, Filling and emptying gas holder tanks
- Handling soap solutions in textile plants, Pumping sugar juice and various liquids in canning plants
Steam Jet Syphons consist of three basic components, namely a converging nozzle, a diffuser (or venturi) , and a body to hold these parts in their relative positions and to provide a suction (or mixing) chamber. In addition, they can be equipped with accessories such as regulating spindles, snap valves and floats to control operation.
Syphons offer numerous advantages over conventional pumps, within the syphon there are no moving parts to wear or break and therefore no parts to require extensive maintenance. Since the syphon is small in relation to the work it does, the cost unit is correspondingly low. Syphons are easy to install and they may be located in remote and inaccessible places without requiring constant attention.
Steam jet syphons can also be made from practically any workable material. Depending upon service conditions units can be made from Cast Iron, Bronze, Stainless Steel, Aluminium, Teflon, P.V.C., Kynar, Polyester Fibreglass, Hastelloy, Carbon Steel, or many other materials - this is a factor not available in most other pumping and mixing devices where special material prices are difficult to justify. Typical Syphon sizes range from 0.5 Inch to 3 Inch for the Type 217 and can be equipped with either flanged or screwed connections. The Type 219 Syphon is used where line sizes are 4 Inches and above and are typically equipped with flanged connections.
Air Jet Syphons
Air or Gas Jet Syphons operate on the same principle as Steam Jet Syphons by using the energy of a gas under pressure to pump liquids and handle solids. In operation syphons use the kinetic energy of motive gas to entrain another fluid, and then discharge the mixture against a head or counter pressure.
Unlike Steam Jet Syphons consideration must be given to the motive gas being used as gases that will not readily condense in to the suction liquid can limit the operating envelope. Practically any source of gas can be used to operate a Jet Syphon, such as bottled Nitrogen, Argon, or compressed air. This can give greater flexibility if the on-site motive supply resources are limited or the installation is in remote location.
Typically uses of Air or Gas Jet Syphons are:
- Sampling liquids or granular solids when the suction fluid must not be contaminated
- Intermittent pumping of liquids from tanks, pits, sumps and bunds
- Applications where steam is not available
Air jet syphons can also be made from practically any workable material. Depending upon service conditions units can be made from Cast Iron, Bronze, Stainless Steel, Aluminium, Teflon, P.V.C., Kynar, Polyester Fibreglass, Hastelloy, Carbon Steel, or many other materials - this is a factor not available in most other pumping and mixing devices where special material prices are difficult to justify. Typical Syphon sizes range from 0.5 Inch to 3 Inch for the Type 217 and can be equipped with either flanged or screwed connections. The Type 219 Syphon is used where line sizes are 4 Inches and above and are typically equipped with flanged connections.