Heating Liquids

Heating liquids in pipelines and tanks

In Pipelines

Pipeline Heaters

Steam Jet Heaters operate on the jet principle to mix steam uniformly with a cold liquid. Operation is very efficient as the steam is fully condensed in to the liquid being heated which allows the liquid to reach within 5 degrees Celsius of the liquids saturation temperature. The jet action within the heater produces agitation and turbulence to keep steam bubbles to a minimum for maximum heat transfer and to reduce noise & steam hammer at high operating temperatures.

(Image - Type 320 /340 / 341 Steam Jet Heaters)

Type 340 and Type 341 Pipeline Heaters

These heaters are simple yet efficient devices for low cost in line heating of process liquids by direct steam injection. They are designed to allow for direct installation in to liquid and steam lines, and operate by mixing cold liquid with steam to raises the temperature of the liquid instantly to a predetermined level. When these heaters are in operation they can be designed to operate either with or without a pressure drop through the unit, although for higher operating temperatures we generally to have a small pressure drop to allow increased velocity through the combining tube, this allows the steam to be sheared in to smaller bubbles to provide better heating.

The straight through design of the units permits handling of slurries and liquids with suspended solids and semi-solids as well as clear liquids. Heaters can be used in continuous or intermittent duty with no operational impact, however when the heater is started some vibration may be present until all liquid is expelled from the combining tube and steam chest.

Type 340 and Type 341 heaters have no moving parts to wear, adjust, or repair therefore maintenance is only required periodically to inspect the internal steam nozzles for wear and scale build up. Heaters can be manufactured from practically any machinable material such as Carbon Steel, Bronze, Stainless Steel, Duplex Stainless Steel, Titanium and Hastelloy to provide excellent corrosion and erosion resistances ensuring a long service life.

Type 320 Continuous Heaters

Continuous Heaters are designed for direct connection to water and steam lines, they are used to mix steam with cold water to provide instant hot water. Some typical plant applications are to supply hot water for washing floors, or with a slight modification they can be particularly useful as warm water emergency washing units where safety showers are required.

Continuous Heaters are equipped with a non-seating screw spindle and hand wheel which can be adjusted to regulate water flow. The tapered end of the spindle has been designed to provide correct proportions of steam and water to provide a variable outlet temperature. This type of heater can also be equipped with a lever assembly which turns the water on before the steam, this acts as both an on-off control and also a safety device. Temperature control can also be made automatic by using a thermostatically controlled valve in the steam line.

In operation the cold liquid is passed through a nozzle to produce a high velocity stream, steam is then introduced in to the liquid through a series of slanting nozzles in the combining tube where complete mixing of liquid and steam occurs. The liquid absorbs all of the heat of the steam and the hot liquid is then discharged into the process line. Regulation of water flow and temperature is obtained by adjusting the spindle via the hand wheel, this also regulates the discharge pressure which can vary from a slight decrease to an actual increase depending on the specific operating conditions.

These heaters can be made from a variety of materials if they are in use with corrosive or erosive fluids however our standard units are generally manufactured from bronze or stainless steel in sizes up to 3 Inch with screwed connections or up to 6 Inch with flanged connections.

Economy Heating

Steam Jet Syphons

Steam Jet Syphons operate on the steam jet principle utilising the energy of steam under pressure to pump, heat and move liquids or solids. In operation syphons use the kinetic energy of motive steam to entrain another liquid or slurry, completely mix the two, and then discharge the mixture against a head or counter pressure.

Syphons can be used for the handling of corrosive or abrasive liquids and solids because of their design simplicity and the absence of moving parts. They are also especially well suited for processes where heating is required in addition to pumping since the pumping is accomplished for the cost of the heating.

Steam Jet Syphons are used in large numbers throughout industry for pumping, mixing and heating operations, some of their uses can be seen below:

  • Intermittent pumping of liquids from tanks, pits, sumps and bunds
  • Pumping filtrate from vacuum vessels and condensate from surface condensers
  • Supplying heated water to the jackets of stills and graining bowls
  • Removing liquid from pickling baths, Extracting chemicals in reaction chambers
  • Moving powdered material or material in granular form, Filling and emptying gas holder tanks
  • Handling soap solutions in textile plants, Pumping sugar juice and various liquids in canning plants

Steam Jet Syphons consist of three basic components, namely a converging nozzle, a diffuser (or venturi) , and a body to hold these parts in their relative positions and to provide a suction (or mixing) chamber. In addition, they can be equipped with accessories such as regulating spindles, snap valves and floats to control operation.

Syphons offer numerous advantages over conventional pumps, within the syphon there are no moving parts to wear or break and therefore no parts to require extensive maintenance. Since the syphon is small in relation to the work it does, the cost unit is correspondingly low. Syphons are easy to install and they may be located in remote and inaccessible places without requiring constant attention.

Steam jet syphons can also be made from practically any workable material. Depending upon service conditions units can be made from Cast Iron, Bronze, Stainless Steel, Aluminium, Teflon, P.V.C., Kynar, Polyester Fibreglass, Hastelloy, Carbon Steel, or many other materials - this is a factor not available in most other pumping and mixing devices where special material prices are difficult to justify. Typical Syphon sizes range from 0.5 Inch to 3 Inch for the Type 217 and can be equipped with either flanged or screwed connections. The Type 219 Syphon is used where line sizes are 4 Inches and above and are typically equipped with flanged connections.

(Image - Type 217 Steam Jet Syphon)

In Tank

Tank Heaters & Mixers

Tank heaters are relatively simple devices which can be used to heat and agitate fluids in tanks and vessels. As with our Pipeline Heaters steam is fully condensed in to the liquid being heated which allows the liquid to reach a tempetature within 5 degrees Celsius of the liquids saturation temperature, of course if required these unit can be also used to boil the liquid for sterilisation purposes etc. As these heaters have no moving parts to wear, the liquids passing through them can be clear or have suspended solids or can be viscous slurries. Our range of Tank Heaters & Mixers can be seen below:

Type 301 Quiet Heater

Quiet Heaters are designed to heat liquids in tanks by condensing steam into a liquid and causing circulation of the heated liquid within the tank. These heaters mix high velocity steam and atmospheric air with a liquid to reduce the noise and vibration characteristic of the injecting steam in to a cold liquid. Atmospheric air is entrained by the steam as it passes through an annular nozzle, this cushions the steam bubbles and prevents their sudden collapse as the steam is condensed. This helps to reduce the loud cracking noise usually accompanying this process to a low hum, in addition the air increases the agitation of the liquid.

Usually these heaters are placed near the tank bottom to obtain maximum circulation. Steam pressure must be high enough to overcome the static head of the liquid, yet not so great that live steam escapes from the surface of the liquid. The steam pressure can be set by a valve to provide the desired liquid temperature and the air line should be throttled if agitation is greater than required. While this type of heater will entrain atmospheric air, compressed air may be used if additional agitation is desired.

Typical materials of construction are stainless steel or bronze and unit sizes range from 0.5 Inch to 4 Inch, all units are equipped with screwed connections.

Type 314 Sparger Nozzle

Sparger nozzles are used in place of drilled holes in sparger pipes as these nozzles require fewer pipe openings and can improve circulation to provide more uniform heating. Type 314 Sparger Nozzles are designed to be submerged in the liquid to be heated and are usually installed in at the bottom of the vessel in a pattern designed to give good circulation and heat coverage.

Heaters of this type are recommended for use in cases where:

  • It is desired to start heating from a shallow level
  • Uniform agitation and heating is required over a large shallow tank area
  • Steam pressures are relatively low
  • Solids in the liquid might tend to clog the small passages in other types of heaters

Sparger Nozzles are operated by the flow of steam through the nozzle, the steam jet entrains the liquid through the suction opening which is immediately condensed and discharged through the diffuser at a high velocity. The agitating action of the sparger nozzle provides thorough mixing of steam and liquid in the diffuser which breaks up any steam bubbles to provide quieter operation. Agitation of tank liquid is also considerable, for example a 0.75 Inch Sparger Nozzle passes approximately 82Kg/Hr steam at 2.8 BarG, it will entrain a minimum of 6M3/Hr of liquid and raises the temperature by 8 Degrees Celsius in one passage through the nozzle.

Typical materials of construction are stainless steel and carbon steel, with unit sizes ranging from 3/8 Inch to 3 Inch for units with screwed or flanged connections, 4 Inch and 6 Inch units are fitted with flanged connections.

Type 315 Circulating Heaters

Type 315 Circulating Heaters are recommended for use where heating and a strong directional circulating action is required, this type of heater must also be totally submerged in the liquid it heats.

Typical applications for these heaters can be seen below:

  • Heating and agitating solutions used in pickling tanks in steel plants and foundries
  • Sterilising molasses in the fermentation tanks used in alcohol plants
  • Dissolving chemical salts in the various liquids used in chemical plants
  • Heating and agitating liquids where vigorous agitation is required

This heater is designed to provide vigorous circulation, agitation, and quick large capacity heating. The Circulating Heater is simple in construction and relatively easy to install however due to the jet discharging in a single direction there is a back thrust that is likely to cause vibration of the steam pipe unless the unit as securely anchored in some way. As per the Sparger Nozzle above, Circulating heaters are operated by the flow of steam through a nozzle, the steam jet then entrains liquid through the suction opening which is immediately condensed and discharged through the diffuser at a high velocity. The agitating action of the nozzle provides thorough mixing of the steam and liquid in the diffuser which breaks up any steam bubbles to provide quieter operation.

Typical materials of construction are stainless steel and carbon steel and unit sizes range from 0.5 Inch to 2 Inch, all units are equipped with either screwed or flanged connections.